The Evolution of Over The Top (OTT): Standardization, Key Players and Challenges

  • Suman Pandey Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea
  • Mi Jung Choi Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea
  • Soyoung Park Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea
Keywords: Smart TV, OTT, ISP, Future Interent

Abstract

OTT users has gained momentum through the evolution of low cost smart TV and other consumer electronic, open nature of Internet, and ever growing contents. Among consumer electronics, Smart TV with Web 2.0 features integration has given OTT service a wider range of audience through bigger screen. This has replaced broadcast TV, cable TV and IPTV models. Motivated by this scenario of OTT services we studied standardization activities of different key players including Content Providers (CP), Cloud/Content Distribution Network (CDN), Consumer Electronics (CE) and Internet Service Provider (ISPs) in TV market space. We have summarized several key challenges for OTT services from ISPs point of view for ex, single sign on for multiple OTT, scalability, heavy tail content availability, live TV etc. We also analyzed the suitability of the next-generation Internet architectures; in particular, Content-Centric Networking (CCN), Open Cache and Multicast Adaptive Bitrate (mABR) for OTT service delivery from ISP point of view.

References

1. B. Baccarne, T. Evens, D. Schuurman, “The Television Struggle: An Assessment of Over-the-Top Television Evolutions in a Cable Dominant Market”, Communications & Strategies, No. 92, pp. 43-61, 4th Quarter 2013

2. “Smart TV Share Jumps to 70 Percent of TV Shipments in 2018 From Less Than 50 Percent in 2015”, IHS Markit, July 17 2018 Sayshttps://technology.ihs.com/604804/smart-tv-share-jumps-to-70-percent-of-tv-shipments-in-2018-from-less-than-50-percent-in-2015-ihs-markit-says
3. S. Pandey, Y. J. Won, J. W.K. Hong, and J. Strassner, "Dimensioning Internet Protocol Television Video on Demand Services", International Journal of Network Management (IJNM), vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 455-468, Nov./Dec. 2011.
4. “Smart tv alliance”, http://www.smarttv-alliance.org/
5. “The Hbbtv specification version 1.5” www.hbbtv.org
6. “ISO/IEC 19941:2017 Information technology — Cloud computing — Interoperability and portability”, https://www.iso.org/standard/66639.html, Dec 2017.
7. “Y.3500 : Information technology - Cloud computing - Overview and vocabulary”, https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Y.3500-201408-I, August 2014
8. “Samsung Tizen API”, https://developer.samsung.com/tv/develop/api-references/tizen-web-device-api-references/tizen-api
9. “LG webOS TV API” , http://webostv.developer.lge.com/api/web-api/supported-standard-web-api/
10. “apple tv API”, https://developer.apple.com/tvos/
11. “roku tv API”, https://developer.roku.com/en-gb/overview
12. “amazon fire API”, https://developer.amazon.com/apps-and-games/fire-tv
13. “OpenConnect”, https://openconnect.netflix.com/ko_kr/
14. “Cloud front”, https://aws.amazon.com/ko/cloudfront/
15. “Google Peering”, https://peering.google.com/#/
16. “The OTT opportunity for operator by silver street”, http://www.gsma.com/membership/wp-content/ uploads/2013/10/White-paper-Aug2013.pdf
17. “OTT impact reflected in Idea cellular, Airtel fourth fis¬cal quarter 2014 revenue” http://www.telecomlead.com/news/ott-impact-reflects-in-idea-cellular-airtel-fourth-fiscal-quarter-2014-revenues-83272-50461
18. K. K. Yap et.al, “Taking the Edge o with Espresso: Scale, Reliability and Programmability for Global Internet Peering”, SIGCOMM , Los Angeles, CA, US, August 21 - 25, 2017
19. A. Singh, J. Rising, “A Decade of Clos Topologies and Centralized Control in Google's Datacenter Network”, SIGCOMM, London, United Kingdom — August 17 - 21, 2015
20. “India's largest spectrum auction worth Rs 5.63 lakh”, https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/, Oct, 2016
21. “Opportunity and impact of video on LTE Networks”. http://www. lteportal.com/Files/MarketSpace/Download/235_ Motoroa_LTEVideoImpactWhitePaper5_13_2009.pdf?PH PSESSID=89a7f201ba524b4932578ea159114c79
22. J. P. Choi , B. C. Kim, “Net neutrality and investment incentives”, The RAND Journal of Economics, 04 August 2010
23. I. Sodagar, “The mpeg-dash standard for multimedia streaming over the internet”, IEEE MultiMedia , Volume: 18 , Issue: 4 , April 2011
24. H. Chen, B. D. Rouhani, C. Fu, J. Zhao, F. Koushanfar, “DeepMarks: A Secure Fingerprinting Framework for Digital Rights Management of Deep Learning Models”, Proceedings of the 2019 on International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval, Ottawa ON, Canada — June 10 - 13, 2019
25. “How to watch US Netflix from Anywhere around the World with Smart DNS”, https://www.dnsflex.com/how-to-watch-us-netflix-from-anywhere-around-the-world-with-smart-dns/
26. A. A. Abbasi ,V. Aggarwal, T. Lan, Y. Xiang, M. R. Ra, Y. F. Chen, “FastTrack: Minimizing Stalls for CDN-based Over-the-top Video Streaming Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing , 05 June 2019
27. S. Pandey, Y. J. Won, M. J. Choi, J. M. Gil, “Community Model for Smart TV over the Top Services”, Journal of Information Processing System, Vol 12, No 4, pp 557-590, December 2016
28. O. Finkelman, E. Klein , “Optimizing Video Delivery with the Open Caching Network”, September 5, 2018, https://www.streamingvideoalliance.org/books/optimizing-video-delivery-with-the-open-caching-network/
29. B. Stevenson, A. Begen, G. Bichot, G. Deen, D. Lucas, Y. Gressel, “The Viability of Multicast ABR in Future Streaming Architectures”, April 2019, https://www.streamingvideoalliance.org/books/the-viability-of-multicast-abr-in-future-streaming-architectures/

30. N. Fotiou, D. Trossen, G. C. Polyzos, “Illustrating a publish-subscribe Internet architecture”, Telecommunication Systems, December 2012, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 233-245
31. K. Katsaros, G. Xylomenos, G. C. Polyzos, “ A hybrid overlay multicast and caching scheme for information-centric net-working”, InProceedings of the 13th IEEE global Internet sympo-sium,SanDiego,CA,USA, 2010
32. A. Carzaniga, M. Papalini, A. L. Wolf, “Content-based publish/subscribe networking and information-centric networking”, Proceeding ICN '11 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Information-centric networking Pages 56-61, ACM New York, NY, USA 2011
33. V. Jacobson, D. K. Smetters, J. D. Thornton, M. F. Plass, N. H. Briggs, R. L. Braynard, “Networking named content”, Proceeding CoNEXT '09 Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Emerging networking experiments and technologies, ACM New York, NY, USA, 2009. Pages 1-12
Published
2019-12-01
How to Cite
Pandey, S., Choi, M., & Park, S. (2019). The Evolution of Over The Top (OTT): Standardization, Key Players and Challenges. Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering, 13(4), 81-87. Retrieved from http://www.mjee.org/index/index.php/ee/article/view/3433
Section
Articles